Actinic keratosis
Actinic keratosis called solar keratosis or senile keratosis, is a pre-cancerous area of thick, scaly, or crusty skin. Actinic keratosis is a disorder that is induced by ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. It is more common in fair-skinned people and those who are frequently in the sun. Untreated lesions have up to a 20% risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma, so treatment by a dermatologist is recommended.

Actinic keratoses characteristically appear as thick, scaly, or crusty areas that often feel dry or rough. Size commonly ranges between 2 and 6 millimeters, but they can grow to be several centimeters in diameter. Notably, actinic keratoses are often felt when touched before the lesions are seen clearly, and the texture is sometimes compared to sandpaper.

There is the causal relationship between sun exposure and actinic keratosis. They often appear on the sun-damaged skin and in areas that are commonly sun-exposed, such as the face, ears, neck, scalp, chest, backs of hands, forearms, or lip. Most people who have an actinic keratosis have more than one.

If clinical examination findings are not typical of actinic keratosis and the possibility of in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cannot be excluded based on clinical examination alone, a biopsy or excision can be considered.

Diagnosis and Treatment
#Skin biopsy
  • Lesion on the back of the hands; This can happen if the back of the hand is exposed to the sun for a long time (driving).
  • Viral warts and malignant disorders (such as squamous cell carcinoma) should also be considered.
  • Hard scales and telangiectasia suggest the diagnosis of Actinic keratosis.
  • If a hard erythematous lesion is located on a sun-exposed area, Actinic keratosis should be considered.
  • A hard keratotic lesion with erythema is characteristic.
  • If sunscreen is not properly applied to the scalp, it can occur with age due to excessive sun exposure.
  • forehead of a male
  • A case similar to an age spot
  • Lesions with a shape similar to a wart are characteristic of Actinic keratosis. Warts can be distinguished by the fact that their lesions are usually soft, whereas the lesions of Actinic keratosis are mostly slightly hard.
References Actinic Keratosis 32491333 
Actinic keratoses, also known as senile keratoses or solar keratoses, are benign intra-epithelial neoplasms commonly evaluated by dermatologists. Often associated with chronic sun exposure, individuals with actinic keratosis may present with irregular, red, scaly papules or plaques on sun-exposed regions of the body. Timely detection and implementation of a treatment plan are crucial since actinic keratosis can potentially progress into invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
 Actinic keratoses: review of clinical, dermoscopic, and therapeutic aspects 31789244 
Actinic keratoses are dysplastic proliferations of keratinocytes with potential for malignant transformation. Clinically, actinic keratoses present as macules, papules, or hyperkeratotic plaques with an erythematous background that occur on photoexposed areas. At initial stages, they may be better identified by palpation rather than by visual inspection.
 Cryosurgery for Common Skin Conditions 15168956
Skin diseases like actinic keratosis, solar lentigo, seborrheic keratosis, viral wart, molluscum contagiosum, and dermatofibroma can be safely treated with cryotherapy (=freezing).