Cafe au lait maculeé_au_lait_spot
Cafe au lait macule are flat, hyperpigmented birthmarks.

Café au lait spots appear in healty people, but may be associated with syndromes such as neurofibromatosis type 1. The number of spots can have clinical significance for diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. Six or more spots of at least 5mm in diameter in pre-pubertal children and at least 15mm in post-pubertal individuals is one of the major diagnostic criteria of neurofibromatosis.

Café au lait spots are usually present at birth, permanent, and may grow in size or increase in number over time. Even after laser surgery, the spots are often not completely removed or can recur after treatment.

The recurrence rate is usually high and laser treatment is required for a very long time.
#QS1064 / QS532 laser
  • Uniformly colored borders and clear spots often appear in childhood. In general, the borders are clearer than those in this picture.
  • Cafe au lait macule seen in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1)
References Laser treatment for Cafe-au-lait Macules: a systematic review and meta-analysis 37291616 
To draw a conclusion, the laser treatment could reach an overall clearance rate of 50% for 75% of the patients with CALMs, for 43.3% of the patients, the clearance rate could reach 75%. When looking at different wavelength subgroups, QS-1064-nm Nd:YAG laser exhibited the best treatment capability. Laser of all the wavelength subgroups presented acceptable safety regarding of the low occurrence of side effects, namely, hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation.
 Cutaneous manifestations in neurofibromatosis type 1 32901776
Café-au-lait spots were found in 1063 patients (96.5%), freckling in the armpits and groin in 991 (90%), and neurofibromas in 861 (78.1%). Other skin conditions included: fatty tumors (6.2%), pale birthmarks (3.9%), psoriasis (3.4%), speckled birthmarks (3.2%), juvenile xanthogranuloma (3.2%), loss of skin color (2.3%), Becker's birthmark (1.9%), skin cancer (0.7%), and white hair patches (0.5%).
 Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management 29431372
Common types of hyperpigmentation disorders include post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, sun spots, freckles, and café au lait spots.