Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin. As signs and symptoms, an painful area of redness increases in size over a few days . The borders of the area of redness are generally not well-demarcated and the skin may be swollen. The area of infection is usually painful. The person may have a fever and myagia.

The legs and face are the most common sites involved. Risk factors include obesity, leg swelling, and old age. The bacteria most commonly involved are streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus.

Treatment is typically with antibiotics taken by mouth, such as cephalexin, amoxicillin or cloxacillin. Around 95% of people are better after 7 to 10 days of treatment. Those with diabetes, however, often have worse outcomes.

Cellulitis is a common disorder, and in the United Kingdom, cellulitis was the reason for 1.6% of admissions to a hospital. Cellulitis in 2015 resulted in about 16,900 deaths worldwide.

Treatment ― OTC Drugs
Advanced cellulitis requires treatment with antibiotics prescribed only by a doctor. If the lesion progresses rapidly and is accompanied by fever and chills, it is advisable to see a doctor as soon as possible.
Applying an over-the-counter antibiotic ointment to early lesions may help. If the ointment is applied too thinly, it may not work at all.

Use OTC pain relievers like acetaminophen to ease the pain.

Keep feet clean and treat athlete's foot because athlete's foot increases the risk of cellulitis.

#First-generation cephalosporins (e.g. Cefradine)
#Bacterial culture
#Third-generation cephalosporins (e.g. Cefditoren Pivoxil)
  • The leg is common location for Cellulitis.
  • Typical case
  • Cellulitis ― healing stage
  • Cellulitis on the left leg. If it spreads widely, high fever can occur, leading to life-threatening septic shock.
  • When the lesion improves, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation may appear.
  • It can be caused by a wound on the palm.
  • Typical case
  • If a tender erythematous patch spreads quickly, Cellulitis should be suspected.
  • As Cellulitis improves, dead skin cells may peel off, and it may become itchy.
  • Most Cellulitis is accompanied by swelling and erythema in the surrounding area. However, in this exceptional case where there is no surrounding erythema, squamous cell carcinoma should also be suspected.
  • Typical case
  • Healing phase.
References Cellulitis 31747177 
Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. It accounts for approximately 3.7 billion dollars in ambulatory care costs and 650000 hospitalizations annually. Cellulitis typically presents as a poorly demarcated, warm, erythematous area with associated edema and tenderness to palpation. It is an acute bacterial infection causing inflammation of the deep dermis and surrounding subcutaneous tissue. The infection is without an abscess or purulent discharge. Beta-hemolytic streptococci typically cause cellulitis, generally group A streptococcus (i.e., Streptococcus pyogenes), followed by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Patients who are immunocompromised, colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, bitten by animals, or have comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus may become infected with other bacteria.
 Cellulitis: current insights into pathophysiology and clinical management 29219814
Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the skin and soft tissues. It happens when there are issues with the skin's protective barrier, the immune system, or blood circulation. Diabetes, obesity, and old age increase the chances of cellulitis by affecting these areas. We also look at recent findings on diagnosing cellulitis, highlighting the importance of accurate diagnosis since conditions like venous insufficiency, eczema, deep vein thrombosis, and gout are often confused with cellulitis. Antibiotics used to treat cellulitis are chosen carefully to target common bacteria without encouraging antibiotic resistance. We also talk about new antibiotics approved for cellulitis. Cellulitis often comes back because of ongoing risk factors and damage to the lymphatic system..
 Current Treatment Options for Acute Skin and Skin-structure Infections 30957166 
Acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections are a common reason for seeking care at acute healthcare facilities, including emergency departments. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism associated with these infections, and the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has represented a considerable challenge in their treatment.
 Prevalence and Therapies of Antibiotic-Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus 32257966 
According to the sensitivity to antibiotic drugs, S. aureus can be divided into methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In recent decades, due to the evolution of bacteria and the abuse of antibiotics, the drug resistance of S. aureus has gradually increased, the infection rate of MRSA has increased worldwide.
 Treatment of severe skin and soft tissue infections: a review 29278528 
To review the salient features of the management of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis.