Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum. The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages it presents (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary). The primary stage classically presents with a single chancre (a firm, painless, non-itchy skin ulceration usually between 1 cm and 2 cm in diameter) though there may be multiple sores. In secondary syphilis, a diffuse rash occurs, which frequently involves the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. There may also be sores in the mouth or vagina. In latent syphilis, which can last for years, there are few or no symptoms. In tertiary syphilis, there are gummas (soft, non-cancerous growths), neurological problems, or heart symptoms. Syphilis may cause symptoms similar to many other diseases.

Diagnosis and Treatment
VDRL and RPR can be used to confirm recent infection and screen for syphilis. FTA-ABS test is a more specific test and can be used to check for previous infection history. Penicillin is used to treat syphilis.

  • Chancres ― primary syphilitic infection by Treponema pallidum
  • Jarisch Herxheimer reaction ― Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus
  • Secondary syphilis
References Secondary syphilis in cali, Colombia: new concepts in disease pathogenesis 20502522 
Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18-68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia.
 Syphilis 30521201 
Syphilis is a systemic bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been named the “great imitator and mimicker.” Syphilis remains a contemporary plague that continues to afflict millions of people worldwide. Luckily, the causative organism is still sensitive to penicillin.
 Syphilis 29022569 
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries. Although several low-income countries have achieved WHO targets for the elimination of congenital syphilis, an alarming increase in the prevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected MSM serves as a strong reminder of the tenacity of T. pallidum as a pathogen.
 Congenital Syphilis 30725772 
(1) Hepatomegaly: This is the most common finding and may occur with splenomegaly. Biopsy of the liver followed by darkfield microscopy may reveal the spirochete. Liver function tests may be abnormal. (2) Jaundice: Jaundice may or may not be present depending on the extent of liver injury. (3) Rhinitis: One of the first clinical presentations, usually in the first week of life. Copious, persistent white discharge is noted, which contains spirochetes that can be visualized under darkfield microscopy. (4) Generalized Lymphadenopathy: Generalized, non-tender lymphadenopathy is also a common finding. (5) Rash: Rash usually appears one to two weeks after rhinitis. Small red or pink colored maculopapular lesions may be commonly seen on the back, buttocks, posterior thigh and soles of the feet. The rash progresses to desquamation and crusting.